Definition: The OSI model defines internetworking in terms of a vertical stack of seven layers. Upper layers of the OSI model represent software that implements network services like encryption and connection management. Lower layers of the OSI model implement more primitive, hardware-oriented functions like routing, addressing, and flow control.
Data communication in the OSI model starts with the top layer of
the stack at the sending side, travels down the stack to the sender's
lowest (bottom) layer, then traverses the physical network connection to
the bottom layer on the receiving side, and up its OSI model stack.
The OSI model was introduced in 1984. Designed to be an abstract
model and teaching tool, the OSI model remains a useful for learning
about today's popular network technologies like Ethernet and protocols like IP.
Examples: Internet Protocol
(IP) corresponds to the Network layer of the OSI model, layer three.
TCP and UDP correspond to OSI model layer four, the Transport layer.
Lower layers of the OSI model are represented by technologies like
Ethernet. Higher layers of the OSI model are represented by application
protocols like TCP and UDP.
1. Short for Open System Interconnection, OSI is a network model developed by ISO in 1978
where peer-to-peer communications are divided into seven layers. Each
layer performs a specific task or tasks, and builds upon the preceding
layer until the communications are complete. Below are the purposes of
each of the seven layers.
1 - Physical layer - responsible for the electrical, mechanical, and timing across the link. 2 - Data link layer (also known as the link layer) - responsible for transmitting data across a link. 3 - Network layer - responsible for routing information through the network and allowing systems to communicate. 4 - Transport layer
- responsible for transferring information between endpoints on the
network and deals with errors such as lost or duplicate packets. 5 - Session layer - responsible for managing a session between two applications. 6 - Presentation layer - responsible for the data formatting and display, allowing for compatibility. 7 - Application layer - responsible for user interaction. An example of an OSI application is the FTAM.
2. Short for Open-Source Initiative, OSI is a non-profit corporation dedicated to managing and promoting Open Source.
Hide Files or Folders Using Command PromptThis is my second instructable. This one is totally different from my previous post... In this esteemed instructable i'll be guiding you to hide a folder by using cmd.. Even the folder option method won't be able to track the hidden folder
You'll need 1. Windows based operating systemStep 1: Run Command Prompt and Basic Text CommandsThere are several methods to run cmd.. Some of them are listed below
1. Start -> Run -> Cmd 2. Starrt -> Program Files -> Accessories - > Command Prompt
Command Prompt is a newer version of Dos and other os similar to that.. In order to fulfill your needs to hide a folder you must atleast know some basic commands ...
Cd - navigates through a folder Md - creates a folder Dir - Directory list Attrib - provides with various attrib features Step 2: Hide d targeted folderAlright, it's time to hide the folder
Presuming that I have a folder named Secret in F:\ Drive Here are the steps to do
An increasing number of IT professionals have been finding it difficult to handle emotional stress, according to experts. An ‘occupational hazard,' the stress related to work needs to be addressed without delay, they emphasise.
“Coping with stress and striving for mental health welfare should be a matter of concern for all and not treated simply as a lifestyle problem of the ‘IT phenomenon',” says Nithya Chandrasekaran, a consultant physician for many IT companies in the city. Post-recession, employees feel pressured to perform well.
Regular occupational problems such as wrist problems due to constant handling of the mouse, slip disc and eye fatigue are common now, but handling stress that arises owing to fear of losing job or to cope with the increasing competition, affects the employee's performance, eventually, taking a major toll on his health, doctors explain.
The project that K. Balajee (29) was handling was pulled off after six months of its inception. Currently ma…
A server is a computer that provides data to other computers. It may serve data to systems on a local area network (LAN) or a wide area network (WAN) over the Internet.
Many types of servers exist, including web servers, mail servers, and file servers. Each type runs software
specific to the purpose of the server. For example, a Web server may
run Apache HTTP Server or Microsoft IIS, which both provide access to websites over the Internet. A mail server may run a program like Exim or iMail, which provides SMTP services for sending and receiving email. A file server might use Samba or the operating system's built-in file sharing services to share files over a network.
While server software is specific to the type of server, the hardware is not as important. In fact, a regular desktop computers
can be turned into a server by adding the appropriate software. For
example, a computer connected to a home network can be designated as a
file server, print server, or …