Tuesday, February 13, 2018

Application Server

Application Server

The application server is a framework, an environment where applications can run, no matter what they are or what functions they perform. An application server can be used to develop and run web-based applications. There are a number of different types of application servers, including Java, PHP and .NET Framework application servers.

Application servers provide a number of advantages. They provide data and code integrity by allowing for a more centralized approach to updates and upgrades to applications. They provide security by centralizing the management of data access and the authentication process. Performance can be improved for heavy usage applications by limiting network traffic performance-tier traffic. All of the advantages and benefits can result in a lower total cost of ownership.

An application server is a server program in a computer in a distributed network that provides the business logic for an application program. The application server is frequently viewed as part of a three-tier application, consisting of a graphical user interface (GUI) server, an application (business logic) server, and a database and transaction server. More descriptively, it can be viewed as dividing an application into:

  • A first-tier, front-end, Web browser-based graphical user interface, usually at a personal computer or workstation
  • A middle-tier business logic application or set of applications, possibly on a local area network or intranet server
  • A third-tier, back-end, database and transaction server, sometimes on a mainframe or large server

What is Server?

In a technical sense, a server is an instance of a computer program that accepts and responds to requests made by another program, known as a client. Less formally, any device that runs server software could be considered a server as well. Servers are used to manage network resources. For example, a user may setup a server to control access to a network, send/receive e-mail, manage print jobs, or host a website.

Some servers are committed to a specific task, often referred to as dedicated. As a result, there are a number of dedicated server categories, like print servers, file servers, network servers, and database servers. However, many servers today are shared servers which can take on the responsibility of e-mail, DNS, FTP, and even multiple websites in the case of a web server.

Because they are commonly used to deliver services that are required constantly, most servers are never turned off. Consequently, when servers fail, they can cause the network users and company many problems. To alleviate these issues, servers are commonly high-end computers setup to be fault tolerant.

The following list contains links to various server types.

Application server
Blade server
Cloud server
Database server
Dedicated server
File server
Mail server
Print server
Proxy server
Standalone server
Web server

Sunday, February 11, 2018


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Saturday, February 10, 2018

What is IP(Internet Protocol)

An Internet Protocol address (IP address) is a numerical label assigned to each device connected to a computer network that uses the Internet Protocol for communication. An IP address serves two principal functions: host or network interface identification and location addressing.

Internet Protocol version 4 (IPv4) defines an IP address as a 32-bit number. However, because of the growth of the Internet and the depletion of available IPv4 addresses, a new version of IP (IPv6), using 128 bits for the IP address, was developed in 1995, and standardized as RFC 2460 in 1998. IPv6 deployment has been ongoing since the mid-2000s.
IP addresses are usually written and displayed in human-readable notations, such as in IPv4, and 2001:db8:0:1234:0:567:8:1 in IPv6. The size of the routing prefix of the address is designated in CIDR notation by suffixing the address with the number of significant bits, e.g.,, which is equivalent to the historically used subnet mask
The IP address space is managed globally by the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA), and by five regional Internet registries (RIR) responsible in their designated territories for assignment to end users and local Internet registries, such as Internet service providers. IPv4 addresses have been distributed by IANA to the RIRs in blocks of approximately 16.8 million addresses each. Each ISP or private network administrator assigns an IP address to each device connected to its network. Such assignments may be on a static (fixed or permanent) or dynamic basis, depending on its software and practices.

Example Of IP

An IP address is written in "dotted decimal" notation, which is 4 sets of numbers separated by period each set representing 8-bit number ranging from (0-255). An example of IPv4 address is, which is the IP address previously assigned to ip location.

IP address classes
Class1st Octet Decimal RangeDefault Subnet Mask
A1 – 126*
B128 – 191255.255.0.0
C192 – 223255.255.255.0
D224 – 239Reserved for Multicasting

Friday, February 9, 2018

What is MAC Address

A media access control address (MAC address) of a device is a unique identifier assigned to network interfaces for communications at the data link layer of a network segment. MAC addresses are used as a network address for most IEEE 802 network technologies, including Ethernet and Wi-Fi. Logically, MAC addresses are used in the media access control protocol sublayer of the OSI reference model.

MAC addresses are most often assigned by the manufacturer of a network interface controller (NIC) and are stored in its hardware, such as the card's read-only memory or some other firmware mechanism. If assigned by the manufacturer, a MAC address usually encodes the manufacturer's registered identification number and may be referred to as the burned-in address (BIA). It may also be known as an Ethernet hardware address (EHA), hardware address or physical address (not to be confused with a memory physical address). This can be contrasted to a programmed address, where the host device issues commands to the NIC to use an arbitrary address.

A network node may have multiple NICs and each NIC must have a unique MAC address. Sophisticated network equipment such as a multilayer switch or router may require one or more permanently assigned MAC addresses.

MAC addresses are formed according to the rules of one of three numbering name spaces managed by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE): MAC-48, EUI-48, and EUI-64. The IEEE claims trademarks on the names EUI-48[1] and EUI-64,[2] in which EUI is an abbreviation for Extended Unique Identifier.

How to Find a MAC Address

To display your MAC address on a Windows NT/2000/2003/XP/Visa computer:

Select Command Prompt
Type: (no quotes) "ipconfig /all"

In the "ipconfig /all" results look for the adapter you want to find the MAC address of. The MAC address is the number located next to "Physical Address" in the list.

Tuesday, February 6, 2018

What is TCP/IP?

TCP/IP (Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol) is the basic communication language or protocol of the Internet. It can also be used as a communications protocol in a private network (either an intranet or an extranet). When you are set up with direct access to the Internet, your computer is provided with a copy of the TCP/IP program just as every other computer that you may send messages to or get information from also has a copy of TCP/IP.

Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) is the language a computer uses to access the internet. It consists of a suite of protocols designed to establish a network of networks to provide a host with access to the internet.

TCP/IP is responsible for full-fledged data connectivity and transmitting the data end to end by providing other functions, including addressing, mapping and acknowledgment. TCP/IP contains four layers, which differ slightly from the OSI model.

The technology is so common that one would rarely use the full name. In other words, in common usage the acronym is now the term itself

TCP/IP as an Open Standard

TCP/IP and the Internet are inextricably linked. Although no organization owns the Internet or its technologies, a number of organizations are responsible for the development of the Internet and so TCP/IP.

Internet Society ( ISOC ) The purpose of the ISOC is to encourage the development and availability of the Internet.

Internet Architecture Board ( IAB ) The IAB is the technical committee of ISOC and is responsible for setting Internet standards and publishing these standards as Request for Comments (RFCs). The IAB governs three groups:

Internet Research Task Force ( IRTF ) - responsible for TCP/IP related research projects
Internet Engineering Task Force ( IETF ) - focuses on solutions to Internet problems and the adoption of new standards.
Internet Assigned Numbers Authority ( IANA ) - oversees the process of providing a unique number or port for each protocol used on the Internet.

Monday, February 5, 2018


The Wire (thewire.in) is a news website published by the Foundation for Independent Journalism (FIJ), a non-profit Indian company. It was founded in 2015 by editors Siddharth Varadarajan, Sidharth Bhatia, and MK Venu, who also initially funded the site. The Independent and Public Spirited Media Foundation (IPSMF) has provided The Wire with funding as well, and at least some of the website's articles have been written pro-bono. It is one of the latest publication houses to venture into the untapped Urdu market.
The Wire's coverage principally focuses on the topics of “politics, foreign policy, political economy, science and development”, according to an article published on Livemint.com. Founding editor Varadarajan claims that the publication was created as a “platform for independent journalism”, and that its non-corporate structure and funding sources aim to free it from the “commercial and political pressures” that supposedly afflict mainstream Indian news outlets.

A story published in the Columbia Journalism Review (CJR) in late 2016 identified The Wire as one of several independent and recently founded internet-based media platforms - a group that also included Scroll.in, The News Minute, TheQuint.com and ScoopWhoop - that were attempting to challenge the dominance of India’s traditional print and television news companies and their online offshoots.

Controversies and criticism

In 2015, Siddharth Varadarajan started thewire, after his removal from his position as editor at The Hindu: thus The Wire's founding is construed as a result of, and reaction to, a political environment that has discouraged dissent against the present Indian ruling BJP party.
Indian Member of Parliament (Rajya Sabha) for the ruling Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) and venture capitalist Rajeev Chandrasekhar accused The Wire of conspiring against him with the country’s main opposition, the Congress Party, after the website published two articles suggesting that Chandrasekhar's major investments in the Indian media and defense industries might represent conflicts of interest with his role as a legislator.Chandrasekhar subsequently filed suit in a Banglore civil court, alleging that The Wire's coverage of him was defamatory. On March 2, 2017 the court passed an ex-parte injunction, ordering The Wire to block access to the two allegedly defamatory articles: 'Arnab's Republic, Modi's Ideology' by Sandeep Bushan and 'In Whose Interests Do Our Soldiers March?' by Sachin Rao.
Though The Wire removed both articles from its site, it has decided to challenge the court order.
BJP chief Amit Shah’s son filed a criminal defamation case against the editors of news website The Wire, which had printed the article 'The Golden Touch of Jay Amit Shah' which highlighted Jay Shah’s business dealings, claiming that the turnover of a company owned by Shah’s son increased 16,000 times over in the year following election of PM Narendra Modi. Some media sources, however, held that there were many glaring errors and innuendoes in the article, which were reported within hours of the article being published.
Jay Shah filed the case in court 13 of the Ahmedabad Metropolitan Magistrate against four editors/reporters of The Wire. Additional chief metropolitan magistrate SK Gadhvi ordered a court inquiry into the matter under CrPC section 202 (to inquire into the case to decide whether or not there is sufficient ground for.Observing that “prima facie it seems there is a case” against The Wire for its “defamatory” article against Shah, a metropolitan court issued summons to the reporter of the article and editors of the website to appear before it on November 13 in the criminal defamation case filed against them. The order also mentions Shah's contention that “the news portal didn’t give enough time to him to send his response, the article didn’t include the loss incurred by his company in the year 2015-2016, and created confusion over the turnover to defame him.”
The Ahmedabad civil court on 23 December vacated the ex parte and interim injunction. The court lifted all restrictions except the use of words (after) “Narendra Modi becoming Prime Minister/elected as Prime Minister.” The Wire called the lifting of the injunction a “victory for The Wire”, and that the “decision by the civil court is a vindication of The Wire's fundamental stand that its article had been a legitimate exercise of the freedom of expression in the public interest.”

Application Server

Application Server The application server is a framework, an environment where applications can run, no matter what they are or what funct...